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The photos below give examples of what these maladies will look like on the fish, followed by a comprehensive way to treat.
Mechanical damage to Lucky who was sucked into a pump and broke his back in 3 places Mechanical damage from a pump
Mechanical damage to Lucky who was sucked into a pump and broke his back in 3 places
 Carp pox on the body of a sanke koi fish.      
Carp pox on the body of a sanke koi fish.  Carp pox are hard "waxy" drops on the koi
 Before salt bath
This photo shows what the fish looked like 3 days later.
 After salt bath
Here is how the fish cleaned up after a .6% salt bath that was given for 2 hours

To the inexperienced it is hard to tell the difference between fungus, a fungus-looking bacteria, Saprolegnia and a fungus-looking parasite. In almost all of these type of "wounds" one would need a microscope to view a specimen to see what they are actually dealing with. All will look different under the microscope.

So lets break it down into 3 basic problems.

Saprolegnia is cold water mold most often found in the spring but it can be also found in the fall when water temperatures are going down. I have also seen it in the winter but my gut feeling it was there in the fall and did not manifest itself until the water was cold and the fish did not have the immune system to try to fight it off. Saprolegnia is the most common of three problems listed above. Sap appears as white or tan tufts growing on the skin. It not uncommon for the Sap to hold algae and for the area to turn green.

Saprolegnia is a secondary invader. In other words the fish had a problem to begin with and the SAP grew on that spot. See the photo of the fish that was tangled in the net.

Also looks like mold but is actually a parasite. Under the microscope Epistylis looks like a long slender stalk and a much wider body.
While not as common as Saprolegnia or Epistylis is also a mold. It looks white or gray in color but it can also be green in color because algae will sometimes grow over the wound. Columnaris bacteria is very hard to identify without a very high powered scoped and knowing just what you are looking for.

OK so basically it will be very hard for a layman to determine just what you are dealing with so following are some recommended treatments.
First you can try hydrogen peroxide. Soak a cotton ball in the peroxide and dab the areas. Take great care to hold the fish so that you do not get the hydrogen peroxide in the eyes, mouth or gills.
High salt .6% (6 pounds of salt per 100 gallons) used as bath for an hour or so.
Potassium Permanganate (herein referred to PP) will also work. Baths in PP is rather complicated and is best left to those who are very familiar with PP and its use. One can very easily kill the fish if they do not know what they are doing.

Alternative treatment #2: PP scrubs work very well. Simply make a paste of PP and water. Pond water or tap water makes no difference because PP is self-sterilizing. Place PP granules in a small container with a lid. This can be used over and over and all you have to do is replace the lid until the next time you are ready to use it again. Add enough water to make a thick paste. Please wear gloves and eye protection. There is no way to do the following procedure and you are going to end up with stains on your hands that will take several days to wear off. Use a cotton ball or Q-tip (what you use will depend on the size of the area) and gently dab the area. Take great care to hold the fish so that you do not get the PP in the eyes, mouth or gills. After dabbing the area rinse the fish in clean water that is preferably pond/tank water. No sense stressing the fish by using tap water that is not the temperature the fish is used to being in. Only do this procedure ONE time.

Malachite Green also works on fungus but is rather hard to get. MG is used as a bath in water that is around 70*. Keep in mind that MG is very toxic to the fish in very warm water.
If you do not see a vast improvement in the fish in 48 hours, try one of the alternative treatments listed above. The next day if the area does not look better it is time to try a different treatment. If the fish does not show signs of improvements with any of the above treatments in a few days OR looks worse, it may be time to do injections of antibiotics.

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